Leukemia Types and Treatment Methods

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia

Granulocyte and monocytes, which form leukocytes that fight against diseases in the bone marrow, form young (blast) cells in the bone marrow. These cells mature over time and play an important role in the immune system.

As a result of the abnormality seen in the maturation of young cells in the findings of acute myeloblastic leukemia, it cannot fulfill its duty in the immune system with the collection of cells that cannot maintain their normal course in the blood and bone marrow. This clinical finding is called “Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia”.

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Treatment Methods

  • Chemotherapy
  • It is done as a bone marrow (stem cell) transplant.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

The building blocks of leukocytes in the body that play a role in the immune system are lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are referred to as lymphoblast when they are young in the bone marrow. It is a disease formed by the uncontrolled, abnormal and irregular proliferation of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow without maturation, and the inability to form lymphocytes, the mature cell.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment Methods

  • Chemotherapy
  • Bone marrow (stem cell) transplant

Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia Treatment Methods

  • Leaching treatment
  • Bone marrow (stem cell) transplant in resistant cases

Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia

Leukocytes that make up the immune system have more than normal mature cells in the blood. In this type of cancer, where genetic factors are effective (philadelphia chromosome), white blood cells are outnumbered from red blood cells and blood flakes.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

It is a type of cancer that occurs by disrupting the structure of lymphocytes in the immune system and by numerous accumulation in the body. Structured lymphocytes cannot help the immune system, but also prevent the production of red blood cells and blood pulses.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment Methods

  • Chemotherapy and immunotherapy
  • Radiotherapy if necessary
  • Bone marrow (stem cell) transplant if necessary
Breast Cancer

General Promotion

Leukemia is a type of cancer that occurs in white blood cells in the body. It is also known as leukemia, blood cancer or bone marrow cancer. The most common of childhood cancers with 30 percent is leukemia.

Leukemia is a disease caused by the bone marrow. Bone marrow, a spongy structure inside the bones, is where platelets are produced that allow blood to clot with red and white blood cells (gyps and akiyuvars).

Uncontrolled and excessive proliferation of cells called lymphoid and myeloid from the white blood cells produced here causes leukemia.

These abnormal white blood cells prevent the work of healthy white blood cells that help fight infections and diseases in the body. This causes symptoms such as bloodlessness, immune deficiency, bleeding predisposition, pale skin, and bruising.

Leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children under the age of 15. However, it can also occur in adults over 55 years old.

Today, the treatment success of leukemias has reached about 85 percent. Many factors affecting treatment success, such as increased importance in patient care, improved laboratory facilities, and better identification of risk classification, are effective.

Bone marrow (stem cell) transplant is preferred in leukemias that do not benefit from chemotherapy and recur.

Diagnostic Methods

Leukemia is diagnosed with a good patient history and physical examination. The patient generally applies to the doctor in a sluggish, exhausted, pale, fiery, lymph nodes grown, bruises on his body, liver and spleen grown.

After the examination, a complete blood count and peripheral spreading test are performed. In the peripheral smear test, blood cells are examined under the microcope. These tests are diagnosed with leukemia if there is an abnormal blood cell.

However, since leukemia is a cancer caused by the bone marrow, the exact diagnosis is made by the examination of the bone marrow in the laboratory of pathology, genetics and current cytometry.

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Diagnostic

  • Peripheral smear
  • Bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy if necessary
  • Flow cytometry
  • Genetic tests

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Diagnostic

  • Blood count
  • Peripheral smear
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy if necessary
  • Flow cytometry
  • Genetic tests

Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia Diagnostic

  • Blood count
  • Peripheral smear
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
  • Genetic tests

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnostic

  • Blood count
  • Peripheral smear
  • Flow cytometry
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
  • Genetic tests

Treatment Methods

Risk grouping of the disease is performed after diagnosis of leukemia. High-risk patients are given more intensive and longer, and some patients are treated with less intensity.

Treatment of leukemia is done primarily with chemotherapy drugs given from the vessel path and mouth. Chemotherapy can also be given to the cerebrospinal fluid to maintain the central nervous system or prevent its growth if damaged.

It is effective in increasing the chances of success of blood and blood products given in addition to chemotherapy, and preventive and therapeutic antimicrobial therapy when necessary, and treatments that support morale and mental health.

In addition, cancer drugs (immunotherapy) and radiotherapy that strengthen the immune system are used according to the patient’s condition.

Bone Marrow / Stem Cell Transplant

Leukemia is a treatment model administered after very high dose chemotherapy in high-risk or recurrent lymphoma and solid tumors that are sensitive to chemotherapy.

The bone marrow or stem cell used for transplantation can be the patient’s own (autologist), as the tissue group is preferred in leukemias, from a suitable donor (allogenic).

Today, if the patient’s brother, mother, father and age are older, bone marrow can be transported with stem cells from their children. In this method called haploidentical transplant, incompatible tissues in the stem cell taken are extracted.

Although haploidentic bone marrow transplant has more risks than other types of transplants, these risks are approaching fully compatible transplants thanks to recent technological advances.

Due to the very high dose of chemotherapy administered prior to Bone Marrow Transplant, very important side effects such as tissue rejection, bleeding, infection may develop during transplantation and during the time the tissue is accepted. Although bone marrow transplant is a treatment model that increases the chances of the disease to heal, there is a risk of recurrence of the disease.

Success of Treatment

In the most common acute leukemias, the treatability rate can increase from 45 percent to 85 percent to vary depending on the cell type and the risk group of the disease. Leukemia is likely to recur in the remaining patients.

There is also a possibility that childhood cancer will recur in adulthood. This rate is less in leukemias and more in some brain tumors and solid tumors. If the disease is caught in the early stage and diagnosed and treated without metastasis, the probability of recurrence is reduced.

Leukemies are monitored for 10 years after treatment. Controls are carried out every month, then 3 months and annual periods. Over the years, the probability of recurrence decreases. Although it is very rare, there are patients who recur after 10 years.

As the molecular genetic characters of the leukemia cell are determined by ongoing research, new targeted treatment models are being developed. Today, according to the type and risk group of leukemia, patients can get their health with a treatment that lasts 2-3 years.

Although it does not respond or respond to the first treatment, then there is a chance to recover in some patients with bone marrow transplant therapy in recurrent disease.

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